Endometriosis is a not so uncommon gynecological condition in which tissue that normally should develop within the uterus develops outside of it, in the organs of the abdomen and the pelvis creating nodules or cysts. Its most frequent appearance is in the peritoneum, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the bladder and it affects women of childbearing age to a greater extent.
There is no official scientific explanation about the causes of endometriosis. One theory claims that it is a hereditary condition, while another thinks that the endometrium during menstruation is regressed by the fallopian tubes and is implanted in the peritoneum, which then develops in non-uterine areas. Finally, some claim that endometriosis may be caused by immunological abnormalities that do not allow the immune system to locate and destroy the ectopic burns from the start.
The main symptoms of endometriosis are:
- Pain during or after sexual intercourse.
- Pain in the abdomen during menstruation.
- Chronic pain in the abdomen or pelvic area.
- Bleeding and pain on urination during menstruation.
- Gastrointestinal disorders.
- Bleeding in the interval between two periods.
- Infertility problems.
In rare cases, endometriosis may be asymptomatic.
The most common method for the diagnosis of endometriosis is laparoscopy, as it allows the gynecologist to clearly see the outbreaks and the extent of endometriosis and can answer questions related to female fertility.
The treatment chosen each time is personalized and differentiates according to the woman’s symptoms, age or desire for childbirth. In cases of mild symptoms, painkillers are usually recommended. Instead, when the pain persists and the woman does not wish to get pregnant, we usually refrain to hormonal treatment (pills, injectable form, and nasal spray). Finally, in women diagnosed with severe endometriosis and experiencing intolerable pains, the last resort for treatment is surgery.