Invasive laparoscopy is one of the most modern methods of surgical diagnosis and treatment, which is performed with the aid of laparoscopic instruments through small incisions, avoiding a large incision in the abdomen. Therefore, we are talking about a minimally invasive method, which ensures a better aesthetic result as well as faster recovery after surgery, and less postoperative pain. Invasive laparoscopy is recommended for almost the entire range of pathological conditions in the intra-abdominal region.
During invasive laparoscopy, the abdomen is inflated with a large amount of carbon dioxide to detach the abdominal wall from the internal organs in order to create the necessary space for the insertion of the laparoscope.
The laparoscope, a special instrument with a self-illuminating camera, is inserted through an incision just above or below the navel (usually 1.2 cm in diameter), while special laparoscopic instruments are usually inserted through three other auxiliary incisions (0.5-1 cm in diameter).
In gynecology, laparoscopy is used both diagnostically and therapeutically.
Diagnostically, it is commonly used in the following situations:
- Chronic pelvic pain
- Acute abdominal pain
- Ectopic pregnancy
Therapeutically, laparoscopy is used for:
- Ovarian cysts and fallopian tube removal
- Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
- Ovarian removal
- Treatment of endometriosis
- Tubal ligation
- Fibroids removal
- Laparoscopic vault suspension
Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus (with or without the ovaries), which can now also be performed laparoscopically. Hospitalization in the majority of cases does not exceed 48 hours and recovery is significantly faster than that of a traditional abdominal hysterectomy.
Hysteroscopy is an equally valuable diagnostic and invasive method for investigating and treating various conditions of the uterine cavity. Hysteroscopy uses a camera that is inserted into the endometrial cavity through the cervix and enables the internal of the intrauterine cavity to be monitored on an external screen.
With the hysteroscopy method, many pathological conditions can be diagnosed (polyps, fibroids, uterine cavity diaphragms, hemorrhaging etc.), but it is not only provide a diagnosis of these conditions, it also contributes to their immediate treatment.
The role of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy in assisted production is extremely important. Hysteroscopy helps us see in the best possible light the cavity of the uterus, which will receive the embryo, while with laparoscopy we can examine the female genitalia. In fact, there are specific pathological conditions of female genitalia which cannot be diagnosed by any other method except hysteroscopy (e.g. mild abnormalities of the uterus) or laparoscopy (e.g. endometriosis, adhesions).
In IVF, invasive laparoscopy greatly facilitates the surgical repair of problems associated with infertility. (Laparoscopic salpingectomy in women with hydrosalpinges, resection of endometriosis masses, cystectomy in women with ovarian endometriosis, etc.).
In all the above cases, laparoscopy can significantly help restore female fertility and increase the likelihood of childbirth.